Doctoral study programmes are focused on scientific research and independent creative activity in research or development or on independent theoretical and creative activity in the arts. The standard length of a doctoral study programme is 3 or 4 years. The study follows an individual study plan under the guidance of a supervisor. The study is completed with a state doctoral exam and defence of the doctoral thesis. Graduates receive the academic degree "doktor" (i.e. "Doctor"), abbreviated as "PhD". More information can be found in the course catalogue.