Postgraduate courses, masters study programmes, are intended to provide theoretical knowledge based on the current state of scientific knowledge, research and development, and their practical application; they also aim at developing creative skills. The standard length of study is 2 - 3 years (120 - 180 ECTS credits). Masters study programmes that do not follow on after a bachelor study programme last 5 years (300 ECTS credits). The study is completed with a state final exam which includes a defence of the Master’s thesis. Graduates receive the academic degree "inženýr" (i.e. "Engineer"), abbreviated as "Ing." or "magistr" (i.e. "Master"), abbreviated as "Mgr." or "magistr umění" (i.e. "Master of Arts"), abbreviated as "MgA.". More information can be found in the course catalogue.