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Tracking possible decline of woolly mammoth during the Gravettian in Dordogne (France) and the Ach Valley (Germany) using multi-isotope tracking (13C, 14C, 15N, 34S, 18O)

Citace:
DRUCKER, D. G., VERCOUTERE, C., CHIOTTI, L., NESPOULET, R., CRÉPIN, L., CONARD, N. J., MÜNZEL, S. C., HIGHAM, T., VAN DER PLICHT, J., GALETOVÁ, M., BOCHERENS, H. Tracking possible decline of woolly mammoth during the Gravettian in Dordogne (France) and the Ach Valley (Germany) using multi-isotope tracking (13C, 14C, 15N, 34S, 18O). QUATERNARY INTERNATIONAL, 2015, roč. 359-360, č. 2. 3. 2015, s. 304?317. ISSN: 1040-6182
Druh: ČLÁNEK
Jazyk publikace: eng
Anglický název: Tracking possible decline of woolly mammoth during the Gravettian in Dordogne (France) and the Ach Valley (Germany) using multi-isotope tracking (13C, 14C, 15N, 34S, 18O)
Rok vydání: 2015
Autoři: Dorothée G. Drucker , Carole Vercoutere , Laurent Chiotti , Roland Nespoulet , Laurent Crépin , Nicholas J. Conard , Susanne C. Münzel , Thomas Higham , Johannes van der Plicht , Mgr. Martina Galetová Ph.D. , Hervé Bocherens
Abstrakt EN: The woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) was an emblematic and key species of the so-called mammoth steppe ecosystem between ca. 110,000 and 12,000 years ago. Its contribution to human subsistence during the Gravettian period as source of raw material was documented in southwestern France and southwestern Germany, with some evidence of active hunting in the latter region. However, decreasing genetic diversity and increasing indications of nutritional stress point to a likely decline of this megaherbivore. The specificity of the ecological niche occupied by the woolly mammoth is clearly reflected by their collagen 13C and 15N abundances (?13Ccoll and ?15Ncoll), measured on skeletal remains of the typical mammoth steppe. The abundances of carbon-13 in mammoth collagen are comparable to those of other grazers like horse (Equus sp.), while the nitrogen-15 abundances are significantly higher (about 3?) than in the other herbivores, either horse or reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). During the Aurignacian and Gravettian occupation at Geißenklösterle in the Ach Valley (Germany), the mammoths had the expected stable isotope signature, but the nitrogen-15 of horses showed an unexpected overlap with those of the mammoth. This unusual pattern was already occurring during the Aurignacian, while the oxygen-18 abundances in bone phosphate (?18Obp) of horse and reindeer were unchanged between Aurignacian and Gravettian periods, which rules out significant change in environmental and climatic conditions. Thus, we hypothesize that during the Aurignacian and Gravettian, the ecological niche of mammoth was intact but not occupied intensively by mammoths due to a decline in their population.
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