Excarnation or evidence of violence? The use of contextual taphonomy for funeral rite reconstruction of Silesian-Platenice phase of Lusatian Culture
PANKOWSKÁ, A., ARKADIUSZ, T., ŠMEJDA, L., RIEGER, D. Excarnation or evidence of violence? The use of contextual taphonomy for funeral rite reconstruction of Silesian-Platenice phase of Lusatian Culture. Kutná Hora, 2016.
|Anglický název:||Excarnation or evidence of violence? The use of contextual taphonomy for funeral rite reconstruction of Silesian-Platenice phase of Lusatian Culture|
|Autoři:||Mgr. Anna Pankowská Ph.D. , Mgr. Tajer Arkadiusz , PhDr. Ladislav Šmejda Ph.D. , Ing. David Rieger ,|
|Abstrakt EN:||Our study deals with the origin of nine secondary burials from archaeological sites Křenovice 2 and Hulín-Pravčice 1. The aim of our research is the tracing of origin of those deposited human remains and reconstruction of the processes that lead to their final secondary deposition. We tested four possible origins of the secondary deposited bones: a) consequence of violence (evidence of war, punishment, massacre), b) consequence of postdepositional processes (outwash from close vicinity of the site, disturbance of older burials), c) consequence of ritual activities (secondary burials), d) consequence of nutritional cannibalism (butchering). When dealing with ritual activities, we focused on the way soft tissues were removed from the bones before their deposition, i.e. through their: a) manual excarnation (with a sharp tool), b) exposition on the surface (scavenger or rodent activity), c) primary burial in the ground. The analysed burials bear markers of manual excarnation (cut marks, chop marks, burning and fractures). The distribution of cut marks on bones and their fracturing point to disarticulation and decapitation. The bones were deposited together with animal bones void of processing traces. All skeletons were disarticulated, their quantitative preservation is low, the quality of bone tissue, on the other hand, is high. The bones bear few root marks and no traces of animal gnawing. Stated the above, we rule out violence, postdepositional processes, primary burial in the ground and exposition on the surface as causes of the state and deposition of the bones. We conjecture that the most probable cause of the observed traces on human bones is complex ritual behaviour during which the bodies were purposefully dismembered.|